Last edited by Mikazragore
Thursday, July 9, 2020 | History

1 edition of Formation of negative ions by surface ionization found in the catalog.

Formation of negative ions by surface ionization

by Charles Stephen Harden

  • 257 Want to read
  • 0 Currently reading

Published .
Written in English

    Subjects:
  • Ionization,
  • Dissociation

  • The Physical Object
    Paginationvi, 38 leaves
    Number of Pages38
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL25920674M
    OCLC/WorldCa13447919

    In negative ion there are two primary mechanisms whereby negative ions are produced: electron capture and reactant ion chemical ionization. Under CI conditions electronegative molecules can capture thermal electrons to generate negative ions. •Bayard-Alpert type ion source •Electron Bombardment ion source •Hollow Cathode ion source •Reflex Discharge Multicusp source •Cold- & Hot-Cathode PIG •Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source (ECR) •Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) •Surface Contact ion source •Cryogenic Anode ion source •Metal Vapor Vacuum Arc ion source (MEVVA) •Sputtering-type negative ion source.

    A potential health risk of negative ions is that proponents may overestimate their health benefits. Given the large number of ionization products and the many claims made about them, consumers can be led to believe that getting negative ions will heal anything and .   So, just like you exercise and eat healthy, you should get your negative ion infusion every day. Your morning routine is a great time to practice earthing. My personal morning routine consists of spiritual time, journaling, personal development, and now grounding. Shoes are an insulatory shield against the negative ions, so kick ’em off.

    11 major ions, all other elements in seawater are present in concentrations less than 1ppm (ions (>1mg/kg seawater) at S = (from Pilson) Ion Formula g/Kg mmol/Kg Sodium Na+ Magnesium Mg2+   The key difference between positive and negative ionization in mass spectrometry is that the positive ionization forms positively charged ions, whereas the negative ionization forms negatively charged ions.. Mass spectrometry or MS is a technique in analytical chemistry that measures the mass-to-charge ratio of ions. The end result of this technique comes as a mass spectrum that appears as a.


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Formation of negative ions by surface ionization by Charles Stephen Harden Download PDF EPUB FB2

The generation of negative ions from SO2 in the gas phase was studied using the thermal surface ionization method. Six anion types were measured: O‐, S‐, SO‐, SO2‐ and with Formation of negative ions by surface ionization book = 96 and m/z = The most intense formed anion was S‐.

For all anions the discussion on. These are accelerated towards the target surface by the +3 to +10 kV potential applied to the target probe. When the Cs ions impinge of the surface they generate the negative ions, as described above.

The negative ions are extracted using a positively biased extraction electrode as for other types of ion. Presented are measurements on the generation of negative hydrogen ion beams via the conversion of positive ion beams on low work function surfaces placed outside the positive ion source.

The converter surfaces are positioned parallel to the beam axis and the positive ion beam is directed onto them by the increase of the beam divergence caused Cited by: 9. A Negative Ion Cookbook BNL TVDG Page 1 of A Negative-Ion Cookbook Roy Middleton For example, the negative ion currents and ionization efficiencies are very dependent upon the creation of a deep sputter crater and the formation of an are apt to stick on the surface of the ionizer and because of their low work functions, impair its.

The quantal theory of negative ions has now been developed considerably (Massey and Smith ; Massey ), but on account of difficulties of computing it is usually necessary to assume rather than to prove that a given ion exists, and then to discuss the probability of its formation by different processes.

Abstract A fundamental study of the formation of negative hydrogen ions via surface conversion is presented. Employed is a novel type of converter, namely a pure barium metal surface. In spite of the high work function of barium compared to more conventional cesiated converters, considerable yields of negative ions were produced.

Several types of surface-ionization sources have been used and are characterized by the means by which the atomic vapor is fed onto the ionizing surface and the method used to extract the ions (see, for example, Figure 46).Numbers of sources such as those described in Harrison et al. [] have been most highly developed, and in many respects the simplest type of surface.

The negative air ion continues to carry the electron, and hence a negative charge, when water molecules surround it, and keep the electron and the molecule bound together. Negative air ions attract dust, pollen, bacteria, viruses, and other undesirable particles. Michelle L. Reyzer, Richard M.

Caprioli, in The Encyclopedia of Mass Spectrometry, 3 Laser Desorption/Ionization (LDI) An alternative strategy for solid/ surface ionization and imaging involves the use of lasers instead of ion beams. The first working laser was reported in (54), and laser desorption/ionization (LDI) mass spectrometry was described shortly thereafter (55,56).

Negative ions are generated when a certain wavelength is emitted from the sun onto a metallic surface. The photoelectric effect may contribute.

K. Schug, Pseudo-molecular ion formation by aromatic acids in negative ionization mode electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, Oct. But this study did find a small improvement on cognitive performance after short-term exposure to increased negative ions. A review of ionization literature also found an effect of negative.

@article{osti_, title = {Meniscus and beam halo formation in a tandem-type negative ion source with surface production}, author = {Miyamoto, K and Okuda, S and Hatayama, A}, abstractNote = {A meniscus of plasma-beam boundary in H{sup -} ion sources largely affects the extracted H{sup -} ion beam optics.

Although it is hypothesized that the shape of the meniscus is one of the main. and the positive and negative electrolyte ions in the solution will move under the influence of the field.

This will lead to an enrichment of positive ions on or near the surface of the meniscus and enrichment of negative ions away from the meniscus. The forces due to the polarization cause a distortion of the meniscus into a cone. This paper is focused on the formation mechanisms and the general behavior of negative ions in low pressure radio-frequency (RF) plasmas operated.

adshelp[at] The ADS is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory under NASA Cooperative Agreement NNX16AC86A.

The principal negative ion formation processes will be briefly reviewed. Primary emphasis will be placed on the more efficient and universal processes of charge transfer and secondary ion formation through non-thermodynamic surface ionization. 86 refs., 20 figs.

A theoretical investigation of negative-ion formation from positive-ion-surface scattering is presented from a unified point of view. Based on the time-dependent Anderson-Newns model, the correlation energy U is seen to play an important role in the two-electron transfer process.

Calculations of the probability of negative-ion formation are in good agreement with experiments on the conversion. Relation between distances of negative and positive ion formation in molecule–surface scattering.

Molecular Physics: Vol. No. 2, pp. An ion. is an atom. or group of atoms with a positive or negative charge. Ions form when atoms lose or gain electrons to obtain a full outer shell: metal atoms lose electrons to form positively.

Ionization or ionisation is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons, often in conjunction with other chemical resulting electrically charged atom or molecule is called an tion can result from the loss of an electron after collisions with subatomic particles, collisions with other atoms, molecules and.Describe the Formation of Both Positive & Negative Ions Positive and negative ions of certain elements can be created depending on the number of electrons in their structure.

Ionization Energy. Ionization energy breaks the bonds between the electrons and the protons in the atom. Certain metals and gases often have eight electrons in a ring.Surface tension (saturation curve only) Sound speed; You can search for data on specific compounds in the Chemistry WebBook based on name, chemical formula, CAS registry number, molecular weight, chemical structure, or selected ion energetics and spectral properties.